The 16th and 17th centuries where a time of much religious turmoil. In Europe it was the time of the Protestant Reformation. The Ottoman empire in the middle east was suppressing other Islamic sects such as the Shi’ites. Even India saw many religious wars between Muslim and Hindu factions. The conquest of the Mughal emperors brought Muslim rule over most of the India subcontinent. Like the first rulers of the Ottoman Empire, the early Mughal rulers were very tolerant and cosmopolitan. Also like in the Ottoman Empire this tolerance did not last long. They destroyed Hindu temples, forcibly converted Hindus to Islam and killed many who resisted. This led to the rise of Sikhism as a dominate sect. Originally a peaceful movement, when the persecution began the sixth Sikh Guru, Har Gobind militarized Sikhism in response to these assaults. This time also saw continued fighting between Europe and the Ottoman Empire. The fighting was centered in north Africa and southern Spain.